This stat, more than any other, speaks to American Muslim life under Trump. People feel an abiding sense of dread, hostility, and discomfort. Meanwhile, life largely continues as usual. Ultimately, perceptions matter. In April, I spent an afternoon following Asma Akhras , a something Muslim woman who decided to run for local office for the first time in part because of the election.
Islam, Media, and Religious Discrimination in America – Wabash Center
She described a feeling similar to how people sometimes talk about ambiguous gender bias: Is it sexism, or is it me? When she knocked on a door and an old man yelled at her, it was impossible to tell whether it was because of her hijab or because he was simply rude. It still ends up as a cloud of doubt over an otherwise placid suburban life. We want to hear what you think about this article.
The Effects of Racial, Sexual or Religious Discrimination
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Order now Get a Quote. Why choose our homework help? Because we know exactly what matters most to you. Leave all papers to us and rest! Free Revisions. If you feel that your paper could use more work, send it for a free revision. In Djibouti, for instance, Christian groups reported that Christian converts faced discrimination in employment and education.
Several Western European countries rank among those with the highest scores in the category of social hostilities related to religious norms. In Germany, for instance, one sociologist estimated that there were thousands of conversions to Christianity — more than during all of the previous 50 years — linked to the rising number of refugees. Germany and Uganda had some of the largest increases in social hostilities related to religious norms. In Uganda, for example, Christians were beaten and three were killed for religious reasons in Muslim-majority areas in Interreligious tension and violence involves acts of sectarian or communal violence between religious groups.
Such tensions can carry over from year to year, and are not necessarily reciprocal. Interreligious tension and violence was the most common type of social hostility in the early years of the study. In the Asia-Pacific, Europe and Middle East-North Africa regions, the specific measure of tensions that involved numerous cases of physical violence between religious groups dropped in recent years in at least some countries.
This may be in part due to Salafists being closely monitored and restricted by the government after the deadly Bardo Museum attacks in Still, in , more than half of countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region, and more than eight-in-ten countries in the Middle East-North Africa region, experienced some kind of communal tension between religious groups. Communal violence has long been common in India, which continued to score high in this category in There also were tensions between Christians and Muslims in Nigeria — the most populous country in Africa, and one that is almost evenly divided between the two religious groups.
For example, Muslim herders carried out retaliatory attacks against Christian farmers after herders said they did not receive justice when the farmers killed members of the herding community and stole their cattle.
Despite a modest decline in overall interreligious tensions since , there were still some notable increases in this category, particularly in Syria and Ukraine. Syria has been experiencing a civil war since that has had a large sectarian component, with violence between religious groups reported throughout the conflict. Religious violence by organized groups includes the actions of religion-related terrorist groups, religion-related conflict, and the use of force by organized groups to dominate public life with their perspective on religion.
Since , the largest increases in this category of social hostilities have occurred in Europe and the Middle East-North Africa region. As in all other categories of government restrictions and social hostilities involving religion, the Middle East and North Africa has seen the highest levels of religious violence by organized groups.
Over the years, the actions of religion-related terrorist groups have increased especially sharply in this region. In , four countries in this study were recorded as having more than 50 injuries or deaths from religion-related terrorism incidents. By , that figure climbed to 11 of the 20 countries in the region.
These include deadly attacks in Egypt in , when armed gunmen carrying the ISIS flag attacked a Sufi mosque in northern Sinai, leaving dead. And on Palm Sunday, suicide bombings at two Coptic churches in the country — which ISIS claimed responsibility for — left 45 people dead. In Europe, meanwhile, organized groups have increasingly used force or coercion in an attempt to dominate public life with their perspective on religion. In the baseline year of the study, this type of hostility was reported at the local, regional or national level in a total of 21 European countries.
By , that figure had risen to 33 countries. For example, in Finland, the Nordic Resistance Movement, a neo-Nazi group, published anti-Semitic and anti-Muslim material and organized small-scale training camps and rallies. In September, roughly supporters of the group marched through the city of Gothenburg on the Jewish holiday Yom Kippur, clashing with police and thousands of counterdemonstrators.
Many of the countries with high levels of religious violence by organized groups have active Islamist militant groups within their borders.https://grenyzadpa.tk
How Much Discrimination Do Muslims Face in America?
Nigeria is among the countries with the largest reported increases in religious violence by organized groups since In a particularly high-profile case in , the group kidnapped more than schoolgirls — who were mostly Christian — from a school in Chibok in Borno state. Social harassment of religious groups is a broad category that ranges from actions by individuals to mob violence.
This category also includes property damage, detentions or abductions, displacement, physical assault and deaths of members of religious groups caused by private individuals or social groups. The Middle East and North Africa again has almost always had the highest levels of hostilities in this category sub-Saharan Africa had the highest level in The Americas, meanwhile, has the lowest levels of all the regions, but also has experienced the largest increase in this type of hostility since In Brazil, there were pockets of anti-Semitic and anti-Muslim sentiment in as well as incidents targeting Afro-Brazilian religions.
In the state of Sao Paulo, arsonists burned down an Afro-Brazilian temple in September, one of eight attacks against Afro-Brazilian targets in the state in that month. There was a considerable uptick in this category in in the Middle East and North Africa in the aftermath of the Arab Spring uprisings in late and The increase was particularly pronounced in Syria, where there was a rise in people being targeted due to their faith, exacerbated by government efforts to quell what had started as anti-government protests.
As the conflict worsened and the government increasingly targeted Sunni Muslims, revenge attacks by Sunnis against Alawites — who were seen as supporting the regime — also escalated. Some of the countries with the highest levels of individual and social group harassment in experienced incidents of mob violence, including Bangladesh — where in November a mob of approximately 20, in Rangpur set fire to and vandalized approximately 30 homes belonging to the local Hindu minority community after a Facebook post demeaned the Prophet Muhammad. The U. Central African Republic experienced a particularly large increase in its score in this category.
In the midst of a violent conflict between Christian and Muslim militia forces, there have been widespread killings and displacement of people.
Muslims have been disproportionately displaced — approximately 80 percent have been forced to flee the country. Overall, government restrictions on religion and social hostilities involving religion remained fairly stable in , compared with the previous year. This marks the first time there was little change globally after two consecutive years of increases on overall restrictions carried out either by governments or by private groups and individuals. This decrease follows two years of increases in the percentage of countries with high levels of restrictions on religion by these measures see here.
As in previous years, most countries continue to have low to moderate levels of overall religious restrictions in Looking separately at global median scores can provide another understanding of how religious restrictions are changing. The global median score on the Government Restrictions Index remained the same at 2. And the global median score on the Social Hostilities Index increased slightly from 1.
The rest of this report looks more closely at the changes in , the most recent year for which data is available. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world.
Table of contents
It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. The Government Restrictions Index is made up of the following categories: Government favoritism of religious groups Laws and policies restricting religious freedom Government limits on religious activities Government harassment of religious groups For more details on these categories, see here.
The Social Hostilities Index is made up of the following categories: Hostilities related to religious norms Interreligious tension and violence Religious violence by organized groups Individual and social group harassment For more details on these categories, see here. Does the national government have an established organization to regulate or manage religious affairs?
Does any level of government ask religious groups to register for any reason, including to be eligible for benefits such as tax exemption? Questions considered in this category Does any level of government interfere with worship or other religious practices? Is public preaching by religious groups limited by any level of government?
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Is proselytizing limited by any level of government? Is converting from one religion to another limited by any level of government? Is religious literature or broadcasting limited by any level of government? Are foreign missionaries allowed to operate? Is the wearing of religious symbols, such as scarves or coverings for women and facial hair for men, regulated by law or by any level of government? Questions considered in this category Was there harassment or intimidation of religious groups by any level of government?