Bootleggers made their own drinks with wood, alcohol and medical supplies, sometimes causing blindness, paralysis, or death. In The Great Gatsby, and in the s, bootlegging was sociably acceptable. Because of the Prohibition law, Gangsters developed secret drinking establishments, Speakeasies; which provided an entertaining atmosphere, jazz music, food, and alcohol. The illegal bars were called speakeasies because you had to speak the password to enter.
With the flood of liquor expanding, the government created the Prohibition Bureau, which always fell short of men and money. The mob, due to the amount of money they were making, were able to expand their influence on bribe public officials; many judges, law makers, police, and Prohibition Bureau members were on various crime organizations payrolls. Lasting roughly thirteen years, Prohibition ended with the ratification of the 21st Amendment, on December 5, , legalizing alcohol. In addition to alcohol parents, teachers, and pastors blamed the lifestyle changes on the musical changes of the Jazz age.
The Harlem Renaissance was a movement where black authors, musicians, and artists show cased the talent that African Americans had to offer, marked the beginning of the musical changes. It was F. Jazz is a musical form, native to the United States, creatively mixing different forms of music, including African American blues and rag time, and European-based popular music.
As slaves African Americans learned few European cultural traditions. In The Great Gatsby, when Nick, Daisy, and Tom are walking to their car, Daisy is drawn back inside by the music, tuning all other surrounding sounds out Fitzgerald Jazz along with the beat and rhythm developed new dance styles, such as the Charleston, becoming so popular that it still symbols the Jazz Age. Along with Jazz, other musical forms and changes emerged, such as Blues, Hillbilly, and boogie woogie music.
Of the s, Bessie Smith was the best and most influential classic blues singer. Hillbilly music, also known as country music, was best represented by musician Jimmie Rodgers. The newly invented radio contributed to the flourishing of jazz, and gained widespread appeal during the decade, even among the whites.
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Another Contributor to the lifestyle changes in the s was immigration. Immigrants brought along their lifestyles and culture; thus forming a culture clash. This is exampled in The Great Gatsby when those from the Midwest — Nick Carraway — were fair, honest, and straight forward, while those living in the East for sometime — Tom and Daisy Buchanan — were unfair, corrupt, and materialistic.
Many immigrated to America hoping for the American Dream, social advancement, freedom, and endless opportunities. Main issue with immigration was the competition for jobs. In a quota system for immigrants was developed by congress. A quota system is an arrangement that limited the number of immigrants who could enter the U. From the early s, however, the dance scene produced a variety of eccentric trends.
Changes in America Between 1920 and 1960 Essay
The first of these were the Breakaway and the Charleston, which were both based on African-American musical styles and beats, including the widely popular blues. A brief Black Bottom dance craze, originating from the Apollo Theater, swept dance halls from to , replacing the Charleston in popularity. By , the Lindy Hop, based on the Breakaway and the Charleston and integrating elements of tap, became the dominant social dance and was the forebear of Swing dancing.
Josephine Baker does the Charleston : Celebrated singer Josephine Baker dances the Charleston, one of the novelty dances that swept pop culture in the s. Eugenics, a prejudicial pseudoscience with roots in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, gained popularity and impacted American state and federal laws in the s.
Eugenics was a field sociological and anthropological study that became popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a method of preserving and improving the population through cultivation of dominant gene groups.
The eugenics movement in the United States was used to justify laws enabling forced sterilizations of the mentally ill and prohibiting marriages and child bearing by immigrants, while in Europe, eugenics theories were used by the Nazi regime in Germany to justify thousands of sterilizations and, later, widespread murder. In its time, eugenics was touted as scientific and progressive, the natural application of knowledge about breeding to the arena of human life.
Researchers interested in familial mental disorders conducted studies to document the heritability of illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Rather than true science, though, eugenics was merely an ill-considered social philosophy aimed at improving the quality of the human population by increasing reproduction between those with genes considered desirable—Nordic, Germanic, and Anglo-Saxon peoples—and limiting procreation by those whose genetic stock was seen as less favorable or unlikely to improve the human gene pool.
The method considered most viable in attaining this goal was the prevention of marriage and breeding among targeted groups and individuals, but over time, the far more extreme action of sterilization became acceptable. While these ideas existed for centuries, the modern eugenics movement can be traced to the United Kingdom in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The theory of evolution made famous by Charles Darwin was used by English sociologist and anthropologist Francis Galton, a half cousin of Darwin, to promote the idea of a human survival of the fittest that could be enacted through selective breeding.
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Francis Galton : A half cousin of Charles Darwin, Francis Galton founded field of eugenics and promoted the improvement of the human gene pool through selective breeding. Eugenicists and supporters began organizing and holding formal discussions and conferences and publishing papers that proliferated through Europe and America. Three International Eugenics Congresses were held between and , the first taking place in London.
Leonard Darwin, son of Charles, presided over the meeting of about delegates from numerous countries—including British luminaries such as the Chief Justice Lord Balfour, and the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. The meeting served as an indication of the growing popularity of the eugenics movement. Second International Eugenics Congress logo, : Eugenics was a popular pseudoscience in the early decades of the twentieth century and was promoted through three International Eugenics Congresses between and American eugenics research was funded by distinguished philanthropists and carried out at prestigious universities, trickling down to classrooms where it was presented as a serious science.
In , J. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution. Davenport founded the Eugenics Record Office in The first state to introduce a compulsory sterilization bill was Michigan in , but the proposed law failed to garner enough votes by legislators to be adopted. Indiana became the first state to enact sterilization legislation in , followed closely by Washington and California in Men and women were compulsorily sterilized for different reasons.
Men were sterilized to treat their aggression and to eliminate their criminal behavior, while women were sterilized to control the results of their sexuality. Sterilization rates across the country were relatively low, California being the exception, until the Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell that legitimized the forced sterilization of patients at a Virginia home for the mentally retarded. These statutes were not abolished until the mid-twentieth century, with approximately 60, Americans legally sterilized.
This led to passage of the federal Immigration Act of , which reduced the number of immigrants from abroad to 15 percent from previous years. Harry H. Laughlin : Harry H. There are also direct links between progressive American eugenicists such as Harry H. Laughlin and racial oppression in Europe. Before the realization of death camps in World War II, the idea that eugenics would lead to genocide was not taken seriously by the average American.
When Nazi administrators went on trial for war crimes in Nuremberg after the war, however, they justified more than , mass sterilizations in less than a decade by citing U. These sterilizations were the precursor to the Holocaust, the Nazi attempt at genocide against Jews and other ethnic groups they deemed unfavorable to the human gene pool. The Southern Renaissance literary movement of the s and s broke from the romantic view of the Confederacy. The Southern Renaissance was a movement that reinvigorated American Southern literature in the s and s.
Lifestyle Changes in the 1920s US
Perhaps ironically, however, this movement that explored racial questions and themes seemed to exclude African-American writers of the time. In the s, the satirist H. Mencken led the attack on the genteel tradition in American literature, ridiculing the provincialism of American intellectual life. This created a storm of protest from within conservative circles in the South.
The United States Turns Inward: the s and s | roliciwar.tk
In response to the attacks of Mencken and his imitators, Southern writers were provoked to reassert Southern uniqueness and engage in a deeper exploration of the theme of Southern identity. Henry Louis Mencken : H. Mencken was an influential American writer and social critic who unwittingly helped to launch the Southern Renaissance literary movement.
The emergence of the Southern Renaissance as a literary and cultural movement also has been seen as a consequence of the opening up of the predominantly rural South to outside influences due to the industrial expansion that took place in the region during and after World War I. Southern Renaissance writers broke from this tradition by addressing three major themes in their works. The first was the burden of history in a place where many people still personally remembered slavery, Reconstruction, and a devastating military defeat.
Because of the chronological distance these writers had from the Civil War and slavery, they were able to bring objectivity to writings about the South.